# Radioactive dating example problems Sex chat bots i can use

Ages of many millions of years for rocks and fossils are glibly presented as fact in many textbooks, the popular media, and museums. One has only to wait: time itself performs the miracles.”1 Yet few people seem to know how these radiometric **dating** methods work.

For decades, the biologists have boldly proclaimed that, whereas we cannot observe today one type of creature evolving into a totally different type of creature, “Time is the hero of the plot. No one even bothers to ask what assumptions drive the conclusions.

Symbolically, the process of *radioactive* decay can be expressed by the following differential equation, where N is the quantity of decaying nuclei and k is a positive number called the exponential decay constant.

The meaning of this equation is that the rate of change of the number of nuclei over time is proportional only to the number of nuclei.

Scientists look at half-life decay rates of **radioactive** isotopes to estimate when a particular atom might decay.

A useful application of half-lives is **radioactive** **dating**.

Carbon-14 is produced in the atmosphere when neutrons from cosmic radiation react with nitrogen atoms: C ratio of 0.795 times that found in plants living today. Solution The half-life of carbon-14 is known to be 5720 years. **Radioactive** decay is a first order rate process, which means the reaction proceeds according to the following equation: is the quantity of **radioactive** material at time zero, X is the amount remaining after time t, and k is the first order rate constant, which is a characteristic of the isotope undergoing decay.

It takes a certain amount of time for half the atoms in a sample to decay.The key is to measure an isotope that has had time to decay a measurable amount, but not so much as to only leave a trace remaining.Given isotopes are useful for *dating* over a range from a fraction of their half life to about four or five times their half life.For **example**, uranium-238 is an isotope of uranium-235, because it has 3 more neutrons in the nucleus.It has the same number of protons, otherwise it wouldn't be uranium.

Kaywoodie began as a line of pipes offered by KB&B (Kaufman Brothers & Bondy) in 1919 (see also Dinwoodie). Up until the late 40's this logo was used on all of the upper grades pipes.

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