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Credit us as authors by referencing Cancer Research UK as the primary source.This file contains additional information such as Exif metadata which may have been added by the digital camera, scanner, or software program used to create or digitize it.HPV infection is common, but progresses to cervical cancer in a minority of cases.[4] Around 12% of women without cervical abnormalities in the UK and Ireland are infected with high-risk HPV types, a meta-analysis has shown.[5] The highest prevalence is in younger women.[5] Around half of HPV infections clear within 6-12 months, though high-risk HPV types persist longer than low-risk types, a meta-analysis showed.[6] Fewer than 10% of persistent HPV infections progress to carcinoma in situ,[6] which left untreated, can progress to cervical cancer.[4] HPV16 and HPV18 account for 58% and 16% respectively of all cervical cancer cases in Europe, a pooled analysis showed.[7] These types are protected against by the UK HPV vaccination programme.Cervical cancer risk is not associated with infection with low-risk HPV types, cohort studies have shown.[8,9] Cervical cancer risk is higher in women with genital warts (GW) versus those without, a cohort study showed;[10] though GW are usually caused by low-risk HPV types (6 and 11), co-infection with high-risk HPV types is likely.[10] Other factors may be associated with cervical cancer risk because they increase the risk of Human papillomavirus (HPV) exposure or persistent HPV infection (and/or may have direct effects, independent of HPV).[1] Cervical cancer risk is almost three times higher in women who have had 6 or more sexual partners, compared with those who have had only one, a pooled analysis showed.[2] Cervical cancer risk is around doubled in women who first had sexual intercourse aged 14 or younger, compared with those who did so aged 25 or older, a pooled analysis showed.[2] Cervical cancer risk is around halved in women whose only current male sexual partner is circumcised, compared with those whose partner is uncircumcised, a pooled analysis showed;[3] HPV prevalence is lower in circumcised versus uncircumcised men, a meta-analysis showed.[4] Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of cervical cancer.[1] Cervical cancer risk is 6 times higher in women with HIV/AIDS, versus women in the general population, a meta-analysis showed.[2] Cervical cancer risk among women with HIV may be reduced by treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), perhaps because HAART improves immune function to support Human papillomavirus (HPV) clearance.[3-6] Cervical cancer risk may be further increased in women with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) alongside human papillomavirus (HPV), a cohort study indicates.[1] This may reflect inhibited ability to clear HPV infection due to immune suppression by other STIs.Infeksi human papillomavirus (HPV) adalah faktor risiko utama penyebab kanker serviks.Selain faktor tersebut, lalu bagaimana gejala kanker serviks yang sebenarnya ?Carrots are classified by The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) as possibly protective against cervical cancer, based on limited-suggestive evidence.[1] Cervical cancer risk is 40-49% lower in women with the highest dietary vitamin A, carotene and other carotenoids intake versus those with the lowest, a meta-analysis showed.[2] Carotenoids are found at high levels in carrots; some are precursors of vitamin A but also have independent antioxidant properties.Cervical cancer risk is 45% lower in women who have ever used an The World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) make no judgement on the association between cervical cancer risk and intake of non-starchy vegetables; fruits; milk; retinol; vitamin E; alcohol; body fatness; and adult attained height, due to limited evidence.[1] Cervical cancer risk is not associated with the following factors, meta- and pooled analyses or systematic reviews have shown: You are welcome to reuse this Cancer Research UK content for your own work.

Kemudian, Anda dapat datang kembali untuk melakukan servikal sriking rutin setiap 3 tahun.Failure to detect and treat pre-cancerous lesions in women with STIs may not explain the association, as women with a history of STIs may be more likely to attend cervical screening, versus women without such a history, a cohort study showed.[2] Cervical cancer risk in HPV-positive women is higher in those with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), versus those without this infection.[3-5] Cervical adenocarcinoma risk is not associated with CT infection, a pooled case-control study showed.[6] Cervical cancer risk is not associated with herpes simplex virus 2 infection, a meta-analysis showed (though some evidence of risk increase in case-control studies).[7] Use of oestrogen-progestagen contraceptives (usually oral contraceptives, OCs) is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of cervical cancer.[1] An estimated 10% of cervical cancers in the UK are linked to use of OCs.[2] Cervical cancer risk is up to doubled in current OC users who have used OCs for 5 years, compared with never users, pooled- and meta-analyses have shown.[3-5] Cervical cancer risk may increase with longer duration of use,[3,4] but is no higher in women who last took OCs 10 years ago, compared with never-users.[3] Cervical cancer risk is 15% higher in women who have had 1 full-term pregnancy compared with those who have had none, a pooled analysis showed; the risk increases with number of full-term pregnancies.[1] Cervical cancer risk among parous women is 64% higher in those with 7 full-term pregnancies, versus those with 1 or 2, this pooled analysis showed.[1] The association with parity is limited to squamous cell carcinoma, with no association for adenocarcinoma, this pooled analysis showed.[1] The reasons for these associations are unknown.Cervical cancer risk among parous women is 77% higher in those under 17 years old at their first full-term pregnancy, compared with those aged 25 or older, a pooled analysis has shown; the risk decreases with older age at first full-term pregnancy.[1] The association with age at first full-term pregnancy is limited to squamous cell carcinoma, with no association for adenocarcinoma, this pooled analysis showed.[1] Tobacco smoking is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of cervical cancer.[1] An estimated 7% of cervical cancers in the UK are linked to tobacco smoking.[2] Cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) risk is 46% higher in current smokers versus never-smokers, a pooled analysis showed.[3] Cervical SCC (invasive or in situ) risk increases with number of cigarettes smoked per day, a pooled analysis showed.[3] Cervical SCC risk is not associated with past smoking, only current smoking, a pooled analysis showed.[3] Carcinoma in situ risk is 83% higher in current smokers, and 32% higher in past smokers, versus never-smokers, a pooled analysis showed.[3] Cervical adenocarcinoma risk is not associated with smoking, a pooled analysis showed.[3] Cervical cancer risk may be higher in current smokers because they are more likely to have human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (more likely to contract HPV, less able to clear HPV, or both),[4] or because smoking causes cancerous progression in HPV-infected cells.[3] Tetrachloroethylene is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of cervical cancer, based on limited evidence.[1] An estimated 0.7% of cervical cancers in the UK are linked to tetrachloroethylene exposure.[2] Cervical cancer develops in under 1% of young women with carcinoma in situ per year.[1] Cervical cancer risk is higher in survivors of vaginal and vulval, kidney, urinary tract, or skin cancers, cohort studies have shown.[2,3] Bidirectional associations between risk of cervical cancer and risk of other human papillomavirus-related cancer types, and cancers at sites near to the cervix, indicate shared causal factors and the effect of radiotherapy treatment.[4] Cervical squamous cell carcinoma risk is 74-80% higher in women with a first-degree relative (mother, sister, daughter) with cervical squamous cell carcinoma, compared with the general population, a cohort study showed.[1] Cervical adenocarcinoma risk is 39-69% higher in women with a first-degree relative with cervical squamous cell carcinoma, compared with the general population, a cohort study showed.[1] This probably reflects shared environmental risk factors including human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, as well as possible genetic factors.[1] Diethylstilboestrol (DES) exposure in utero is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of cervical adenocarcinoma; it is classified as a probable cause of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, based on limited evidence.[1] Cervical cancer and high-grade carcinoma in situ risk is 2.3 times higher in women who were exposed in utero to DES, a cohort study showed.[2] Cervical dysplasia risk is higher in women with systemic lupus erythematosus, a meta-analysis and cohort study have shown;[1,2] though there is some evidence of no association between cervical cancer and systemic lupus erythematosus.[3] Cervical cancer risk may be higher in women with inflammatory bowel disease, cohort studies have shown;[4,5] though this may be limited to high-dose use of the immunosuppressant drug azathioprine.[5] Use of immunosuppressant drugs in autoimmune conditions may inhibit human papillomavirus (HPV) clearance.Ciri ciri kanker serviks stadium awal memang tidak dapat dirasakan, hampir mustahil untuk menemukan adanya tanda terinfeksi kanker di stadium awal.Dikarenakan tidak ada tanda yang berarti pada tahap awal, wanita di sarankan untuk melakukan tes rutin seperti pemeriksaan sel HPV pada leher rahim apakah normal atau tidak.

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  1. Should my courtship techniques be the same as when I was in my 20s? Question from Randi: What do you think about long-distance relationships? They take a lot of attention, by e-mail, by phone, sacrificing money because the cost can become difficult.